Abstract

Research Article

Clinical picture of pulmonary plague observed in the paediatric wards of antananarivo

Rivo Lova Herilanto Rakotomalala*, Lovasoa Randriamanga, Mihary Soa Karol, Mioramalala Sedera Aurélien and Annick Lalaina Robinson

Published: 13 May, 2021 | Volume 4 - Issue 1 | Pages: 046-049

Introduction: In Madagascar, plague is a highly contagious acute endemic infectious disease. The diagnosis of the most severe form of pneumonic plague remains difficult in children, hence the objectives of the present study; which is to identify the clinical signs of this clinical form in children and to describe its epidemiological and evolutionary profile.

Methods: A retrospective case-control study was conducted in four pediatric wards in Antananarivo during the urban pneumonic plague outbreak from September 2017 to January 2018.

Those cases were defined as children aged 0-15 years old suspected of having plague with positive RDT and PCR, and they were defined as children aged 0-15 years old with negative RDT and PCR.

Results: Fifty-two cases of pneumonic plague were identified, half of which (50%) were under 24 months of age.

A male predominance was noted with a sex ratio of 1.23 and 86.54% of the patients were from urban areas.

Several clinical signs were found but none was specific for pneumonic plague: cough (59.62% p: 0.5), dyspnea (3.85% p: 0.16), chest pain (3.85% p: 0.26%), hemoptysis (7.69% p: 0.17), vomiting (9.62% p: 0.14), diarrhea (11.54% p: 0.45), altered general condition (38.46% p: 0.24%).

Two deaths were noted (3.8%).

Conclusion: No specific clinical warning signs have been identified in childhood pneumonic plague. In the event of an epidemic of urban pneumonic plague, any bacterial pneumonia should at least initially include active treatment against Yersinia pestis.

Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.japch.1001031 Cite this Article Read Full Article PDF

Keywords:

Clinical; Child; Pneumonic plague

References

  1. French language infectious pathology society. Online Infections. 2001; 1: 8-11.
  2. Aubry P. The plague in India. A century after the discovery of the bacillus by A. Yersin. Med Trop.1994; 54: 289.
  3. Epidemiology and management of plague epidemics in the Mediterranean during the Second World War. History of Medecine. 2004.
  4. Infectious diseases. Encycl Med Chir. 8-039-V-20. 2001; 8.
  5. Ratsitorahina M, Chanteau S, Rosso ML, Randriambelosoa J, Ratsifasoamanana L, et al. Epidémiological aspects of plague in Madagascar. Arch Inst. Pasteur Madagascar. 2002; 68: 51-54. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12643093/
  6. Chanteau S, Nato F, Migliani R. The value of rapid tests chromatography for the surveillance of epidemic diseases in developing countries by immuno: the example of plague in Madagascar. Med Trop. 2003; 63: 574-576.
  7. Pasteur Institute of Madagascar. Plague Atlas in Madagascar, 2004. - OMS. The plague. REH. 2005; 80: 138-140.
  8. Mann JM, Shandler L, Cushing AH. Pediatric Plague. Pediatrics. 1982; 69: 762-767.
  9. Bin Saeed AA, Al-Hamdan NA, Fontaine RE. Plague from Eating Raw Camel Liver. Emerging Infect Dis. 2005; 11: 1459-1457. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16229781/
  10. Arbaji A, Kharabsheh S, Al-Azab S, Al-Kayed M, Amr ZS, et al. A 12-case outbreak of pharyngeal plague following the consumption of camel meat, in north-eastern Jordan. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2005; 99: 789-793. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16297292/ 
  11. Becke TMP, Poland JD, Quan TJ, White ME, MD, et al. Plague Meningitis-A Retrospective Analysis of Cases Reported in the United States, 1970-1979. West J Med. 1987; 147: 554-557. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3424819/
  12. Patrice D, Jean-Paul GE. Pilly, Infectios and tropical diseases, Alinéa Plus. 2018; 328.
  13. World Health Organization. Plague around the world: 2010-2015. REH. 2016; 91: 89-92.
  14. Léon KN, Mbombo D, Nduwa K, Aimé AM, Nathalie KK, et al. Acute respiratory infection and nutritionalstatus in children 0-5 years: case of university clinics of Lubumbashi. Democratic Republic of Congo. Pan Afr Med J. 2014; 19: 393.
  15. World Health Organization. Human plague: review of regional morbidity and mortality, 2004-2009. Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 2010; 85: 40-45. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20151494/
  16. Bulter TH. Plague gives surprises in the first decade of the 21st century in the United States and worldwide. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2013; 89: 788-793. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24043686/

Figures:

Figure 1

Figure 1

Similar Articles

Recently Viewed

Read More

Most Viewed

Read More