Current Issue (Volume - 3 | Issue - 1)

Current childhood cancer survivor long-term follow-up practices in South Africa

Published on: 29th January, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8530277122

Background: The number of childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) is increasing due to improved survival. Most suffer at least one treatment-related late effect, even decades after treatment, thus lifelong long-term follow-up (LTFU) care is a necessity. Currently no standardized LTFU programme for CCSs exists in South Africa. Study purpose: This study investigated current LTFU care of CCSs in South Africa. Methods: A survey was conducted amongst 31 South African paediatric oncologists using the SurveyMonkeyTM online tool. Information obtained included: training/experience, LTFU practices, late effects knowledge and opinion regarding the importance of a standardized LTFU programme. Results: The response rate was 74% (23/31). Respondents had an average of 9 years’ experience. All (22/23; 96%) regarded LTFU as important. Only half (12/23; 52%) discussed late effects at diagnosis. Infertility and second malignancy risks were discussed by a third. Less than half (48%) used LTFU guidelines; the majority (9/11; 82%) adjusted them to the local context. Most survivors were followed by a paediatric oncologist (17/23; 74%). About half of respondents (47.8%) shared LTFU with colleagues in private practice (50%), secondary (66.7%) or primary care facilities (25%). Almost half of respondents (10/23; 43.5%) regarded their late effects knowledge and LTFU experience as good, 8/23 (34.8%) as adequate and 3/23 (13%) as inadequate. All agreed that a national LTFU programme would be very important (87%) or important (13%). Almost half of the respondents (48%) understood what a Survivorship Passport was. Conclusion: It is essential to develop a national standardized LTFU programme for CCSs in South Africa to ensure appropriate care for all survivors.
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Aripiprazole-induced seizures in children with autism spectrum disorder and epilepsy

Published on: 31st January, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8530277855

Purpose: Children with autism spectrum disorder are at an increased risk for developing seizures, which can be triggered by classical antipsychotics. Aripiprazole is an atypical antipsychotic that has a safer drug profile. The objective is to present the experience with seizure control in autistic children who are placed on Aripiprazole. Methods: Series of consecutive autistic children with comorbid epilepsy treated with Aripiprazole were identified prospectively over a 3-year period. Monthly follow up by one pediatric neurologist was performed to document seizure control. Results: 56 autistic children with comorbid epilepsy were placed on Aripiprazole. Most children (59%) were seizure free for at least 6 months. The initial Aripiprazole dose was 5 mg in all patients. Follow up ranged between 5-8 months (mean 6.9). A total of 5 (9%) children developed seizure provocation (3/5) or worsening seizure control (2/5). There were 3 males and 2 females with ages ranging between 6-11.5 years (mean 8.5). Three of these children had a previous history of seizure worsening with other antipsychotic drugs (respiridone in 2 and haloperidol in 1). One child with seizure provocation developed status epilepticus 5 days after introducing Aripiprazole that required intensive care admission. The drug was stopped in all 5 children with no long-term effects. Conclusion: Seizure provocation or worsening seizure control is not uncommon following the introduction of Aripiprazole in autistic children with controlled epilepsy. Although the risk is low, parents should be warned and advised on what to do, particularly in the first month of therapy.
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Case-based education to improve learning and faculty teaching of residents and students in a clinical setting

Published on: 5th February, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8553243394

Introduction: Current pediatric residents spend less time in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and as a result, resident exposure to neonatal pathophysiology has decreased. Engaging learners efficiently while balancing clinical demands is challenging. Practices to enhance adult education include integration of problem centered learning into the demands of daily life in an environment in which learners feel safe asking questions and expressing themselves. Methods: With this principal in mind, we developed a curriculum to enhance resident and medical student education during busy NICU rotations. The curriculum was case-based, available on-line and facilitated by neonatology faculty and fellows. A template designed to be concise and interactive was used to create and present the cases. After the case vignette, the template prompted medical students and residents to generate a differential diagnosis, order a diagnostic workup and narrow the diagnosis. Discussion of the diagnoses occurred at the conclusion of the cases; however, the template discouraged didactic lectures. Results: In two years, cases were viewed 2,362 times. Facilitators and learners rated the quality and utility of the cases favorably overall. Cases took approximately 20 minutes to complete. Approximately 57% of survey respondents reviewed 1-2 cases per week and 9.6% reviewed 3-5 cases per week. Discussion: A template with a concise and consistent format to construct and present cases allows for the creation of a curriculum that can be incorporated into a clinically demanding service and may enhance clinical teaching and learner engagement.
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So-called idiopathic scoliosis – disfiguring deformity in children, pain problems in adults. Information about biomechanical etiology, classification and therapy

Published on: 10th March, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8553234161

In the article presented the etiology of the so-called idiopathic scoliosis (Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis [AIS]), new classification, there are given rules of therapy and causal prophylaxis. This knowledge is based on observations from 1984, but essentially from the years 1995 – 2007. In 2001 it was given the first description in classification – “S” scoliosis in 1st group / type and “C” and “S” scoliosis in 2nd A / B group and types, in 2004 “I” scoliosis in 3rd group / type.
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“Syndrome of Contractures and Deformities” according Prof. Hans Mau. Symptoms, diagnosis, treatment: Recommendations for parents

Published on: 10th March, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8560724023

In development of movement apparatus in small children, youth and – if not cured – in adults play the role two factors. First is connected with small disorders in brain – and in Pediatrics Orthopedic Departments we see very often children with the symptoms of Minimal Brain Dysfunctions [MBD]. The second is connected with asymmetries in anatomy and in function of movement apparatus in “Syndrome of Contracture and Deformities” described by Professor Hans Mau (Tübingen, Germany). These second problems are the subject of this paper
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Pharmaco-economic study and cost of care for chronic diseases: Case of Haemophilia in Morocco

Published on: 2nd April, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8577726167

This paper is an attempt to enrich the literature about the role that can play some economic approaches, such as cost-effectiveness analysis, in order to help medical stuffs to decide about the treatment to adopt in case of a chronic disease such as Haemophilia. Data from morocco were gathered in order to explain the importance of such approaches.
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The practice of self-medication in children by their mothers in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo

Published on: 17th July, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8658074907

Self-medication is a common practice in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). There are few studies on mothers’ practice of self-medication in children in DRC. Trying to draw an inventory of this practice, we carried out a survey of self-medication of children under 12 years of age by their mothers (n = 392) in Lubumbashi, DRC. The main objective was to assess frequency of self-medication and the secondary purposes were to describe habits, dangerous behaviors and common mistakes. The results speak for themselves: 96% of the mothers self-medicate their children; 95.7% do not know the exact dosage of the drug used; 97.17% do not check the expiry date; over 91% of the mothers use antimalarials, 41.3% antipyretics/analgesics and 26.3% antibiotics. Healthcare practitioners should involve household members in focused awareness on self-medication and its negative implications in order to encourage them to serve as change agents against the practice by mothers.
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Air pollution and respiratory health

Published on: 1st September, 2020

As per report of WHO [1] (World Health Organization), air pollution (ambient/outdoor and household/indoor air pollution) kills an estimated seven million people worldwide every year largely as a result of increased mortality from stroke, heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer and acute respiratory infections. Data of WHO shows that 9 out of 10 people breathe air containing high levels of pollutants. World Health Organization is working with countries to monitor air pollution and improve air quality. From smog hanging over cities to smoke inside the home, air pollution poses a major threat to health and climate. More than 80% of people living in urban areas and around 91% of the world’s population live in places where air quality levels exceed WHO limits, with developing and under-developed countries suffering from the highest exposures, both indoors and outdoors [1]. While outdoor air pollution comes from the motor vehicles, burning of fossil fuels and other industrialization activities, indoor air pollution is the result of tobacco smoke and burning fuel for cooking & heating. Furniture and construction materials also emit such pollutants. Both outdoor and indoor air pollution are harmful to the human health.
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Child neglect - still a neglected problem in the global world: A review

Published on: 29th September, 2020

Child neglect is a global problem that involves large costs for both the individual and for society. This article is based on published reviews and meta-analyses in the field of child neglect between 1980 and 2018. Of a total of 433 articles, 13 was included, main Data bases has been PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Psych Info, ERIC, CINAHL. The prevalence in the normal population was found to be between 16% and 26%, while the prevalence in clinical groups seem to be significantly higher. For example, was the prevalence of neglect 50% among patients with eating disorder. It is especially important to know who is reporting neglect. Research shows that neglect is strongly associated with among other things, depression, one of the most common illnesses among the general public. The theoretical models that are used are ecological. Risk factors can be found at all levels when using ecological models. Research shows that factors involving the relationship parent-child are among the most important. Neglect is more common in low-income countries than in high income countries. Most studies point to the importance of prevention. Existing preventive programs are most often of family and parental character. More research is needed, especially as concerns the development of preventive programs that can identify specific types of neglect and present suitable preventive measures, both at the societal and family level. Key points 1. Neglect is a global problem. 2. Prevalence depends on the measurement method and can vary between about 16% and 76%. 3. Prevalence is higher when negligence is self-reported than when reported by professionals. 4. The most common and most serious risk factors are present in the microsystem. Parenting and interactions between child and parent are considered important. 5. There is a link between neglect and, above all, depression, but also anxiety, self-harm and eating disorders.
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Premature ovarian insufficiency in children: Etiology, clinical management and treatment

Published on: 19th November, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8796530385

Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) is a rare disease, especially in children and adolescents. It was previously called premature ovarian failure (POF). It can be manifested as delayed puberty, primary or secondary amenorrhea that occurred before the age of 40 years with no less than two abnormal serum sex hormones (low estrogen and high gonadotropin). It is reported that the incidence rate is 1% at the age of 40 years and 0.01% at the age of 20 years. Although the disease usually occurs in middle-aged and elderly women, clinical practice in recent years has shown that it has also been found in adolescents and even children. It is generally believed that the etiology of POI includes genetic factors, immune factors, and iatrogenic factors. So far, several genetic mutations that may cause POI have been found clinically, but the etiology of 90% of POI is still unknown. In recent years, the incidence of POI in children and adolescents has increased, and there are more urgent requirements for its early diagnosis, treatment, and clinical management. Based on this, this article will mainly review the research progress of the etiology, treatment, and clinical management of POI in children and adolescents.
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A rare case report on pediatric shellfish allergy

Published on: 23rd November, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8796529764

Shellfish are extensively consumed worldwide because of their nutritional value. In general they are good sources of low-fat protein rich in several essential vitamins and minerals as well as in the essential nutrients omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFAs) [1]. Shellfish belongs to “The Big 8” food groups causing allergy, which often does not outgrow during childhood. However, increase in IgE – mediated sea food allergy has been linked to shellfish. Seafood- associated shellfish include crustaceans & molluskans [2]. These may cause mild local symptoms & lead to severe systemic anaphylactic reactions by ingestion, inhalation, or contact. Globally, the prevalence of shellfish allergy estimated to be 0.5% to 2.5% of the general population [3]. There are limited data showing the prevalence of shellfish allergy in children. A study on US pediatric population showed 1.3% of shellfish allergy. Children were more allergic to crustacean (1.2%) than mollusks (0.5%) [4]. Tropomyosin is the major allergen.
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A girl with a stiff neck

Published on: 8th December, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8873201882

Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) is a rare form of non-Langherans cell histiocytosis (non-LCH) observed almost exclusively in infants and young children. It is rarely systemic, involving extracutaneous sites, such as the liver, lungs, spleen, kidney, pancreas, bone or central nervous system. Systemic JXG may be associated with significant complications requiring aggressive medical or surgery care; especially, central nervous system lesions are difficult to treat and reported to be possibly fatal. Clinical presentation of JXG of central nervous system is not specific and is related to the involved site while magnetic resonance imaging examination remains the first choice for localizing the lesions. If no other system is involved, surgical excision could be sufficient.
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A rare case of acute necrotising pancreatitis in a paediatric patient

Published on: 8th December, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8848126015

The diagnosis of acute necrotising pancreatitis is a rare event in the Paediatric Emergency Department (ED). We report a case of acute pancreatitis in a paediatric patient, diagnosed in our ED, a tertiary level paediatric hospital. This child presented with vague symptoms of constipation, abdominal pain and back pain, and on clinical examination had a distended abdomen with peritonism. She rapidly deteriorated and needed aggressive fluid resuscitation in the ED for treatment of septic shock. The diagnosis of acute pancreatitis (AP) was only considered once elevated amylase levels were apparent. Whilst AP is an important differential diagnosis in a patient who is presenting with acute abdominal symptoms, the diagnosis in children in particular is seldom and thus easily overlooked in the previously healthy child.
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Parents’ perception of the school nurse’s role

Published on: 21st December, 2020

Background: School nurses possess an essential role in treating and helping children maintain health. However, the full scope of their role has not been identified by parents. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore parents’ perceptions of the role of the school nurse. Methods: Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. One hundred eighty parents participated in the study. The perception of the roles of school nurses was assessed by a 16-item questionnaire, which was adapted from a study by Kirchofer, et al. 2007. Results: The four most important school nurses’ roles perceived by the parents were providing first aid and emergency care to children, communicating with parents and health care providers in the presence of a problem, providing medical treatment, and preventing and controlling diseases. Conclusion: School nurses have many important roles, and while parents identified some essential roles, they did not recognize other vital roles as being very important. Increasing awareness of school nurses’ multifaceted roles among parents is essential so that they can utilize nurses’ expertise in maintaining their student’s health as well as tap into a key resource in the coordination of care for their child.
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