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Risk factors for esophageal strictures in children and adolescents with eosinophilic esophagitis

Published on: 27th October, 2022

Studies in children with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) have reported esophageal strictures but none have examined risk factors associated with strictures. Aim: To assess risk factors associated with strictures in children with EoE. Methods: In this retrospective study, children with EoE seen over 20 years were separated into two groups; with and without strictures. Physical features, CBC, endoscopic findings, and biopsy of the distal and mid-esophagus were captured. Statistical significance with p - value and multivariate logistic regression was done. Results: Total patients 222 and 20 (9.1%) had strictures. Mean age of stricture patients 12.7 years (range 7-18) and non-stricture 9.3 years (range 1-17) (p = 0.006). Among stricture patients following were prevalent and significant; dysphagia (stricture 100% vs. non-stricture 41.6%, p = 0.0005) and food impaction (70.04% vs. 4%, p = 0.0005); EGD: rings and exudates were strongly associated with stricture, 45.0% vs. 4.5%, p = 0.0005 and 60% vs. 30.7%, p = 0.008, respectively. Abdominal pain was lower in the stricture group (5% vs. 31.2%, p = 0.017). Eosinophil counts were numerically more in the stricture group but not significant. Multivariate logistic regression confirmed that strictures are likely to occur among patients with dysphagia (p = 0.02, OR = 11.7, 95% LCL 2.0) and food impaction (p = 0.0001, OR = 80.9, 95% LCL 15.4), respectively, adjusted for age and gender. Conclusion: EoE children with dysphagia or food impaction have a higher chance of having an esophageal stricture. These EoE children 12 years or over with exudates or rings on endoscopy, should be treated and carefully monitored, to reduce the risk of stricture formation.
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